The Moscow Kremlin.
The Moscow Kremlin is one of the most representative icons of Moscow which houses the entire administrative and historical center of Russia.
The height of the Kremlin walls, the narrow lagoons, the battle platforms, the measured step of the towers, all this indicates that this is mainly a fortress. But once you enter the Kremlin, your impression changes. In an area of 28 hectares, there are large squares and beautiful squares, magnificent palaces and a large number of temples. The entire city within the city, which was created for many centuries and today preserves the monuments of Russian architecture XIV-XX Centuries They form sets of the squares of the Cathedral, Ivanovo, Senate, Palace and Trinidad, as well as the Spasskaya streets, Borovitskaya and Palace. All the old and new squares of the Kremlin form a single urban complex, but each one has its own specific history and its own unique architectural appearance.
The Chamber of Armory exhibited not only armor and ceremonial weapons, but also state robes of Russian autocrats, jewels of the royal treasury and the patriarchal sacristy, gifts from foreign guests, coronation clothing and church clothing. A large collection of gold and silver utensils from Russian and foreign teachers. In the last room, the carriages of the court and the elements of the horse harness are assembled.
A visit to the Armory is only possible as part of the excursions.
It is amazing that a genuine masterpiece of the architecture of the Russian church was created by the Italian Aristotle Fioravanti. They say he traveled especially to Vladimir to study ancient temples and during the construction of the Assumption Cathedral he kept his style, but applied revolutionary building technologies. Thanks to them, the gigantic interior space seems light, the domes seem to rise in the air. Luxurious painting covers the walls, pillars and ceiling, the iconostasis is surprising in its scale and beauty. Under these vaults, the Russian tsars were crowned and elevated to the rank of patriarchs. The building is full of an aura of strength and greatness.
Cathedral of the Annunciation
The 9 steps of the angelic hierarchy, subordinate to the Mother of God, symbolize the golden domes of the church of the house of the Grand Dukes of Moscow. Here they confessed, married, baptized children. The iconostasis painted the artel of Theophanes the Greek and Andrei Rublev. Later frescoes represent historical scenes with the participation of Vladimir Monomakh and his heirs. The sages of ancient Greece hold scrolls with quotes that correspond to Christian dogmas. The princely treasure remained in the basement, and now the Treasure Museum found in the Kremlin territory is functioning.
The temple, consecrated in the name of Archangel Michael, served as the final resting place of the Grand Dukes of Moscow, the Russian tsars and their families. The architect Aleviz Novy erected a building similar to the Assumption Cathedral, adding Venetian motifs to the decoration. There are 54 burial places in the temple, mostly under marble slabs. The tombstones above them are decorated with carved ornaments. The relics of the Prince of Saints Mikhail of Chernigov and his boyardo Fedor are revered as miraculous. In a special hall, built by Ivan the Terrible, lies himself, his son John, Tsar Fedor Ivanovich.
The bell tower of Ivan the Great
The white pillar, crowned with a golden helmet, joins the entire architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square. The extraordinary grace and lightness of a large tower is achieved by reducing the diameter of the levels cut by tall windows. Thanks to the skill of the architect, the bell tower resisted after the explosion, organized by the French invaders. On the lower level is the museum of the history of the architectural ensemble of the Moscow Kremlin. Visitors see fragments of the white stone of Dmitry Donskoy’s Kremlin. The roundabout gallery offers a beautiful view of the Cathedral Square.
The slender church between the Faceted Chamber and the Assumption Cathedral was erected in memory of the miraculous liberation of the Tartar invasion that occurred on the day of the acquisition and transfer of the Virgin’s clothes to Constantinople. For several centuries, it served as the home church for the patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Today, the Wooden Sculpture Museum operates here, where rare carved icons of Rostov the Great and the Solovetsky Islands are displayed.
The construction of the residence of the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church completed the formation of the building complex of the Cathedral Square. Through the high arches in the basement of the Temple of the Twelve Apostles adjacent to the chambers, visitors are surrounded by beautiful examples of ancient Russian architecture, which contain many thousands of historical and cultural values. The Museum of Art and Life of the seventeenth century is open in the palace itself. The exhibition contains church items, court clothes and clothing embroidered with gold, ancient icons.
A huge artillery weapon is contained in the Guinness Book of Records. Its caliber is not exceeded today. A gun was fired at least once, it is possible that the ashes of the False Dmitry burned. Master Andrei Chokhov decorated the outer surface of the trunk with molten bas-reliefs, one of which represents Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich. Apparently that’s why the gun got its name. An incredible artifact from the past delights not only with its size, but also with its mastery of execution and the fine elaboration of details.
The Tsar’s Canyon, currently installed on the western side of Ivanovo Square, between the bell tower of Ivan the Great and the Church of the Twelve Apostles, is the most prominent work of the skill of Russian weapons. It was made by order of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich in 1586 by the court pitcher Andrei Chokhov at the Cannon Yard in Moscow. In caliber, which is 890 mm, it is the largest weapon in the world, which is why it is called the Tsar’s cannon. Its weight is close to 40 tons. The gun’s bronze barrel is decorated with molded curly friezes, ornamental belts, commemorative inscriptions and the equestrian figure of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich.
In the second half of the 1970s, the Tsar’s cannon and a cast iron carriage with cores were removed for restoration and in 1980 they were reinstalled.