The Moscow metro stations – “Moscow underground palaces”, are really distinguished by the splendor of the palace of the hallways and underground halls. The underground complexes are decorated with statues and reliefs, monumental and decorative compositions (paintings, mosaics, stained glass and murals) of the main artists of the country. The system includes 12 lines (including the light rail line) with a total length of 298.8 km (double track), where 182 stations are located.
The Mayakovskaya, Revolution Square stations with 76 bronze sculptures by M. G. Manizer, Kropotkinskaya, Komsomolskaya-Koltsevaya with mosaics of P. D. Korin, Novoslobodskaya and others are among the most interesting architectural monuments 1930-1950 years Some of them are officially under state protection. The new metro stations are simple and of austere design.
A little history
The first line opened on May 15, 1935 and extended from Sokolniki station to Park Kultury station, with a branch to Smolenskaya. The subway originally bears the name of L. M. Kaganovich. Since 1955, the subway is named after V.I. Lenin The transport system itself since 1992 is mainly known as the Moscow Metro.
In the fall of 1941, the subway was used as an air raid shelter, some of the cars were evacuated. The decision of the State Defense Committee of October 15, 1941 provided for the destruction of subway equipment in the event of the appearance of enemy troops “at the gates of Moscow.”
The design of the station is dedicated to the theme of the struggle of the Russian people for independence. The ceiling is decorated with eight mosaic panels of precious and small stones, six of which represent Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, Alexander Suvorov, Mikhail Kutuzov, Soviet soldiers and officers on the walls of the Reichstag. Its author is the artist P. D. Korin. Two more panels representing JV Stalin (Victory Parade and Delivery of the Guard Flag) were replaced after the exposure of Stalin’s personality cult in 1963. The new panels show the speech of V.I. Lenin before the Red Guards and the Homeland in the context of the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin.
The station hall between the buildings of the Leningrad and Yaroslavl stations is decorated with bas-reliefs by G.I. Motovilov
The architectural decoration of the station is deeply symbolic, the three parts: the Central Hall, the transitory round entrance of the Renaissance with giant column capitals and the pavilion, have the idea of the sun and the glory of victory and the divinity of its achievement . The central hall resembles the ancient Roman hall of the basilic type. The pylons and columns of the Doric order are covered with light “koelga” marble. The candlesticks resemble the ancient Roman candlesticks, accessories that resemble the sun below.
The authors of the G. A. Zakharov and Z. S. Chernyshev station project architects received the Stalin Prize.
The design of the station is dedicated to the Soviet Ukraine and the theme of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. In the vault on the pylons, 24 murals representing the workers of the Soviet Ukraine are placed. On the side of the platform, murals are also placed, mainly with images of fantastic plants. The pylons are decorated with light marble and additionally decorated with a colored ceramic cornice. The end of the station occupies a large mosaic panel that represents the festivities in celebration of the 300th anniversary of the reunification of Ukraine and Russia. The authors of the paintings are a great creative team of artists: V. A. Konovalov, V. N. Arakelov, P. M. Mikhailov, L. A. Karnaukhov, T. V. Konovalova, A. K. Shiryaeva, K. P. Aksenov, I.V. Radoman, G.I. Opryshko
Although the architecture of Mayakovskaya belongs to the “Stalinist neoclassicism”, the presence of some avant-garde details gives it a touch of Art Deco style. The parts of the corners of the columns are decorated with “Orlets” of Ural stone and marble limestone. The upper part of the walls of the track is decorated with marble “Ufaley”, the lower one, with diorite. The floor is white marble and gray granite.
An important decoration of the station is the smalt mosaic panels placed in niches (the author of the sketches is A. A. Deineka, the theme is “Days of the Soviet sky.” The mosaics were written in the workshop of V. A. Frolov in Leningrad). At the opening of the station, there were 35 panels; one that was closer to the old exit was subsequently lost due to the construction of a pressure seal.
The station was decorated with Armenian black marble “davalu”, combined with white, gray and gold marble of other races. In the niches of each of the arches formed by the pylons of the station hall, there are 76 bronze figures representing the Soviet people (author – Matvey Manizer). absolutely).
The sculptural sculptures are arranged in chronological order from the events of October 1917 to December 1937: workers and soldiers, peasants and sailors, paratrooper, Voroshilovsky shooter, border guard with a dog (4 sculptures, all dogs are rubbed by the students to the brightness of the snout. It is considered if the student touch the nose of the dog, will bring luck to him), a Stakhanovite and a young engineer, a chicken coop with a chicken and a rooster, as well as students, athletes and pioneers.
All figures (except pioneer figures) to fit in the limited vaulted volume of arched passages are represented kneeling, bent or seated. There was a joke about this: “At the station it was shown that the entire Soviet people were sitting or kneeling.”
The Popular Museum of History of the Moscow Metro is located in the southern lobby of the Sportivnaya station on the second and third floors.
Address: 119048, Moscow, Khamovnichesky Val, 36.
USEFUL METRO INFORMATION
Opening hours: Monday from 10:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Tuesday to Thursday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friday 9:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m. Weekends: Saturday and Sunday. The last Monday of each month is a health day. The entrance of visitors stops 30 minutes before the end of the museum. For individual visitors, admission is free.
Registration for excursions is made no earlier than 4 weeks before the date of the excursion, and on the days of mass visits to museums (April 18, May 18, etc.) no earlier than two weeks. Telephone for consultations and excursions recordings: +7495 622-73-09.
Subway stations in sleeping areas usually open later. The ring line stations open at 5:30.
The last subway train from the stations outside the ring road leaves at 1:00, after which the station closes to enter, working only for the exit. In the center, the last train usually leaves a little later, around 1:30. Sometimes, during the holidays, the Moscow authorities extend the working hours of all metro stations and keep them open until 2:00 or even 2:30.
If you plan late trips, it is better not to wait for the last train, especially if you need to make a downtown transfer. At approximately 1:00 the ticket may already be closed, it is also likely that the last train in the direction you need has already left. Also, keep in mind that after 11 p.m., train intervals increase to 8 minutes.
The escalators at all metro stations stop working at exactly 1:00, so if you are late, you will have to climb on foot. And considering that the Moscow metro has escalators up to 63 meters high, that crossing will not be easy to master.
Calculation of travel time in the Moscow metro.
You can calculate the travel time by subway quite accurately using the Metro.Yandex service. But when calculating time, you should consider when and where you will go. At peak time, add approximately 5 minutes to the total time; The fact is that during a period of great influx of people, queues for escalators can be formed.
The average train interval in the subway is 2.5 minutes. At peak time, this interval can be reduced to 1.5 minutes.
In the absence of unforeseen and emergency circumstances, the Moscow metro trains operate very clearly, and the schedule is executed with 100% accuracy.
Why close the subway at night?
At night, measures to ensure passenger safety begin in the subway. Check the condition of the tracks, trains, systems, clean wagons and stations: all this can be done only at night when there are no passengers in the subway and the contact rail is off.
Surely you noticed how clean the subway was in the morning, you saw new brochures, freshly painted walls or a freshly whitewashed ceiling. It was night that the workers did all this so that during the day the new 8 million passengers could enjoy the cleanliness and the well-maintained subway and have confidence in their safety.
unspoken rules of conduct in the Moscow metro
The subway is a transport of greater danger, so when you are underground you must follow a series of simple rules. Usually, all these rules are announced by the speaker. But there are 2 more unspoken rules, whose implementation will make the use of the metro even safer and more enjoyable.
Do not take pictures of the driver’s cabin with a flash camera.
You yourself experienced temporary blindness after a flash photo session. So why shouldn’t the driver feel the same? In this case, the seriousness of the situation lies in the fact that the driver, blinded by the flash, must continue moving and enter the tunnel. And to drive the train safely, the engineer must see very well.
Do not hold the doors when boarding a wagon
Often, all train stops in tunnels are not as dear as a result of a train malfunction. The failure occurs due to the fact that passengers delay the train’s departure, trying to climb through the already closed doors. As a result, the train stop time increases, and the train that follows it is forced to stop in the tunnel in anticipation of vacant seats. In this case, drivers will be responsible for non-compliance with the schedule.
To avoid this, it is enough to have tact and wait for the next train.