Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery tower.
The Nikolo-Korelsky monastery passing tower appeared in the Kolomenskoye museum reserve in 1932 as an example of 17th-century wooden architecture. The first buildings of the monastery itself, according to legend, date from the early fifteenth century.
At first, the researchers determined the construction time of the monastery gate tower in 1691-1662 years, that was when the churches and cell buildings of the monastery were surrounded by a wooden wall and seven towers. But a more thorough analysis by experts at the end of the 20th century showed that the structure was erected after the fire of 1798, which would supposedly destroy all the wooden fortifications. When dismantling the tower and its restoration in a new place, the carpentry techniques that arose in the 17th and 18th centuries were used, for example, a complete rejection of nails so that the building was considered a true monument of the monastery architecture of wood.
The travel tower of the monastery of St. Nicholas Korelsky.
A wooden architecture museum has been opened in the territory of the Kolomenskoye Reserve-Museum. Here, on the banks of the Moskva River, in an unusually beautiful place, old 17th-century buildings are collected and brought from different parts of Russia. You can see architectural monuments from the outside for free.
All exhibits presented have a difficult destiny and in the old place they would be sentenced to death. Then, the Tower (gate) of the Nicholas-Karelian monastery is the only thing left of the monastery after the fire of the eighteenth century.
The Nicholas-Karelian monastery was founded in the late fourteenth, early fifteenth century, two kilometers from the White Sea, at the mouth of the North Dvina River. In 1692, a log fence was built with seven towers around the monastery.
The fire that occurred in 1798 destroyed most of the monastery buildings, only its western tower survived with the Holy Doors.
Since ancient times, the territory of the Karelo-Nikolsky Monastery was used as a seaport, that is, it served as the Sea Gate of the Russian State. In the 1930s, the construction of a military company for the production of warships began here. In this regard, in 1932, it was decided to move the tower along with part of the log walls to Kolomenskoye.
As a reference: Currently, the former Karelian-Nikolsky Monastery is located in the territory of the OJSC Sevmash shipbuilding company, which produces warships and submarines.
In 1932, the gate tower of the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery, which existed 34 versts from the city of Arkhangelsk, and 2 versts from the White Sea, was transported to Kolomenskoye. (Now this is the territory of the city of Severodvinsk).
Until the early 1990s, the years 1691-1692 were considered as the time of the construction of the passage gate tower of the monastery fence. However, as researchers discovered during the last decade, including KARENSI specialists, the preserved tower of the fence could only be built after the fire that occurred in the monastery in 1798. Then the fire destroyed the walls and towers of the end of the XVII century. In 1880, the fence, which had been left in poor condition, was replaced by a new one, but the towers, including the door, remained old: they were only covered with tesos. The photographs of the tower on the site, taken by the artist V.V. Plotnikov in 1906, and the dimensional drawings of the architect D.V.
Mileev They are the only indisputable illustrative sources of the state of the monument before its study, dismantling, transport to the Kolomenskoye museum under the direction of P. D. Baranovsky.
In 2007, the tower was dismantled, restored and transported to a new location. All carpentry work on the restoration of the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery’s travel tower was carried out in accordance with the historical carpentry technology of the 17th – 18th centuries, in particular, tools made according to the models of tower construction. A thorough restoration of the original records was carried out: completely deteriorated areas were replaced by inserts of the new material and surface rot was eliminated. At the same time, traditional carpentry techniques (manual adjustment, threading, barbed joints, etc.) were used more widely than in the usual restoration practice. Sumy Moss Tower Prison
Sumy Prison, located on the shores of the White Sea, was made of wood, like many other Russian fortresses from the 16th – 17th centuries. The art of the fortification of the masters who built these fortresses reached such a high level that the walls and towers resisted the “fiery battle.” To date, only one northwest tower (Moss), demolished in the early 1680s, has remained in Sumy Prison.
It was stored unassembled in the collections of the Kolomenskoye Reserve-Museum. This building has a high historical and architectural value: in the European part of Russia for a long time there has not been a single wooden monument of defense architecture. In the original records, the footsteps of the enemy (Swedish) pellet were preserved, which the heroic defenders of the fortress shot repeatedly at the end of the XVI-XVII century.
In 1931, the remains of Sumy’s prison were investigated by P.D. Baranovsky and V.N. Ivanov P.D. research materials Baranovsky and V.N. Ivanov, data on the current state of the preserved part of the monument, as well as historical and archival information about Sumy prison and its analogies (mainly the city of Kemsky), made it possible to make documentary evidence after almost 70 years. reconstruction of the northwest tower (Mokhovaya) with fragments of adjacent walls. That is, implement the plan of P. D. Baranovsky and save the monument from final destruction and oblivion.
Exhibition of the tower
An exhibition dedicated to the history of the prison, as a military fortress, and its place in the Pomeranian defense system from the end of the 16th century to the beginning of the 18th century, now takes place in the Moss Tower of Sumy prison. It tells about the life of the people of the military service that guarded the prison and presents objects related to the economic activities of the inhabitants of the fortress, the interior of the red corner is reproduced.
A section of the exhibition, located on the second level of the tower, is dedicated to show the military history of the fortress. Here are documents about the history of Sumy Prison, simple archery clothes and Pentecostal archery, sewn according to the 17th century analogues, military equipment, weapons made according to the 17th century analogues and much more.
On the third upper level of the tower, where the guards were usually located, a section of the exhibition is presented that talks about the defense system of the Russian North. Bratsk Fortress Tower The Bratsk Fortress was located on the left bank of the Angara, on a hill, had four towers in the corners: “Under three towers there are three huts, the fourth empty and the vehicle entrances. A chapel was erected at the door and a new anbar was cut with a trumpet of three printed fathoms. ”