The Moscow Kremlin is known for one of its most notable historical sites: Tsar Bell.
And it does not strike with its sound (Tsar Bell never rang), but above all with its own mass and enormous size. Currently, the bell is in Ivanovskaya Square and everyone can see it. It is known with certainty that the Tsar’s Bell was launched in the 18th century by the family of the founding masters of Motorin known at that time: Father Ivan and his son Mikhail.
Of course, the Tsar’s Bell is his best and most monumental job, but the Motorins throw many other bells and more than 10 weapons. And not only for the churches of the Russian capital: the bells of their work, for example, can be seen in St. Petersburg and Kiev.
The story of the creation of the Tsar’s Bell.
The Tsar’s Bell, which can be seen in Moscow today, is not the first. It turns out that there was an earlier version of it. It was released in 1600 and weighed approximately 40 tons. Unfortunately, in the mid-seventeenth century it crashed. Immediately after this sad event, they decided to melt a new bell, much larger than the previous one. The weight of the new bell was 130 tons, which was installed next to the bell tower of Tsar Ivan the Great. But it was not meant to “live.” The exact date of his fall is known: it was 1654, Christmas. The bell suffered during the Christmas bell. But this was decided not to stop. As for a professional foundry worker, A. Grigoriev, the master was ordered an even larger bell, which already weighed 160 tons.
However, it was not meant to ring for a long time: Grigoryevsky’s bell broke during a severe fire that occurred in 1701. And only after 30 years, Empress Anna Ioannovna decided to make another attempt to revive the Tsar’s Bell. The duration of preparatory work was 4 years.
To launch a new bell in Ivanovskaya Square, a special mold was created in a 10-meter deep pit. The mold walls were reinforced with bricks and special oak inserts, and an iron grid was placed at the bottom. Oak piles were used as the basis of this design. Next, a bell was placed in the well, in which the molten metal was poured into four melting furnaces. The remains of the old Tsar Bell, which crashed during the fire, went to the material for launch. The project was “officially” directed and executed by Ivan Motorin. As of this moment, the chronology of the creation of the Tsar’s Bell is as follows: the preparatory work was completely completed in November 1734. On November 26, a service was held in the Assumption Cathedral, immediately after from which the melting furnaces were flooded.
And now, it seems, nothing should prevent the launch of a new bell. However, unforeseen things happened again. Two furnaces failed, molten copper began to drip and it all ended in a big fire. And after a while, Ivan Motorin died …
They decided not to leave the business, and Ivan Motorin Mikhail’s son undertook another attempt to create the Tsar’s Bell. 1 hour and 12 minutes is the exact time it took to launch the latest version of the Tsar’s Bell. The exact date of its creation is also known: November 25, 1735. After the launch, the bell began to be decorated with persecution. However, fate intervened here. In May 1737, another fire started in Moscow. As a result, logs and wooden boards were set on fire, which served as a framework for the foundry’s casing. The Tsar’s Bell began to heat up and so that it would not melt again, it was decided to fill it with water. Naturally, the metal could not withstand such a temperature difference, and one piece broke the Tsar’s Bell. The weight of this piece was 11.5 tons. The most interesting thing is that after the fire nobody took it out of the smelter pit.
And only during the restoration of the Kremlin after the war with Napoleon, in 1836, the Tsar Bell was hoisted on a special pedestal. Therefore, it can be seen today. Mounted near the bell tower of Tsar Ivan the Great, this is really a masterpiece of the foundry art of Tsarist Russia.
Another notable person is inextricably linked to the history of the creation of the last Tsar Bell, which is now accessible to tourists, Augustus Montferrand. August Montferrand gained fame as a class specialist in working with heavy structures weighing several tens of tons after the construction of St. Isaac’s Cathedral. By the way, he was their main architect. It was he who helped organize the rise of the Tsar’s Bell on the pedestal. By the way, the pedestal itself was also designed by Augustus Montferrand. The people of that time were literally stunned to see the power and beauty of the Tsar’s bell raised! Ornamental ornaments became especially great, this was observed in the newspapers of that time.
Anyway, August Montferrand launched a copper power with a cross, mounted on top of the Tsar’s Bell. The cross is not golden, as many people think, but only golden. However, the view of the Tsar’s Bell from this does not become less spectacular. In the bas-reliefs that adorn the Tsar’s Bell, you can see Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, in which the previous copy was created, and Empress Anna Ioannovna, the creator of the creation of this copy.
In fact, thanks to his decree, work began on the launch of a new copper bell. Immediately below the image of Empress Anna Ioannovna, an inscription flaunts the creators of the Tsar’s Bell, the father and son of the Motorins. Nor do we forget the Christian saints: in the Tsar’s Bell there are images of Christ with the Mother of God, the Apostle Peter and John the Baptist. However, the fire that occurred in 1737 once again did not allow the planned end. It is for this reason that the Tsar’s Bell shows signs of incomplete coinage. By the way, another teacher was dedicated to persecuting. Only recently was his name established: Fedor Medvedev.
Interesting facts about the Tsar’s bell:
- In 1941, the communications center of the Kremlin regiment was located in the bell. So that the giant did not shine and was not visible to German bombers, it was specially painted;
- Several times they started talking about how to weld the bell to use it for the intended purpose. But experts say it won’t work to get a clear sound;
- 72 kg of gold and 525 kg of silver were added to the heat. This was supposed to improve the sound;
The Tsar’s Bell never had a tongue. The following language was taken from another bell.
Tsar Bell in the Moscow Kremlin: a giant who never called
Address: Russia, Moscow, Moscow Kremlin
Creation date: 1735
Putting on a pedestal: 1836
Coordinates: 55 ° 45’02.9 “N 37 ° 37’07.1” E